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There are many interacting systems that make up the Earth, many of which are dynamic. The early Greeks considered \"air\" to be one of four elementary substances; along with earth, fire, and water, air was viewed as a fundamental component of the universe. Apart from all this, these rays also decrease the process of photosynthesis, supersonic jets fly at the height of 20 km above the land surface and they emit nitrogen oxide which also affects the ozone layer. Earth as a SYSTEM 2. The minimum temperature in winters, at Equator (At the height of 17 kilometer) is 70° C and in summers over the poles it is – 45° C (At the height of 9 kilometer). Like its name, the ionosphere is the ionized part of the Earth’s atmosphere and is found between 48 km (30 mi) to 965 km (600 mi) altitude. The atmosphere contains all of the Earth’s air and is divided into troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere and ionosphere. Geographers break down the Earth’s systems into four spheres that make up the world’s air (atmosphere), water (hydrosphere), land (geosphere), and living organisms (biosphere). Upgrade to remove ads. Short wavelength rays of solar energy (UV, X, L) get absorbed by molecules and atoms of nitrogen and oxygen because of which temperature increases upto 1000°C in this scanty pressure layer of atmosphere. Lithosphere. These four subsystems are called "spheres." It warms the planet by day and cools it at night. next: Spectral Signatures back: Electromagnetic Spectrum Caitlin Dempsey | November 15, 2020March 18, 2020 | Geography Concepts. Three of these spheres are abiotic and one sphere is biotic. However, due to local reasons, at some places this phenomenon reverses also. Plagiarism Prevention 5. The blanket of gases not only contains the air that we breathe but also protects us from the blasts of heat and radiation emanating from the sun. The Earth formed approximately 4.6 billion years ago. Hydrosphere 3. Dry air from Earth's atmosphere contains 78.08% nitrogen, 20.95% oxygen, 0.93% argon, 0.04% carbon dioxide, and traces of hydrogen, helium, and other "noble" gases (by volume), but generally a variable amount of water vapor is also present, on average about 1% at sea level. Abiotic describes substances that are made from non-living materials. Region where ozone gas is present in abundance is also known as ozone layer. USGS. Printable Version . Water is found in all three states on Earth which are gas, liquid, and solid. Atmosphere: The earth’s atmosphere, a complex fluid system of gases and suspended particles, did not have its origin in the beginning of the planet. This layer is the layer that contains the Earth’s ozone layer. Grade 11 Earth & Life Science (Earth System & Subsystems) 1. (n.d.). (n.d.). These systems interact in multiple ways to affect Earth’s surface materials and processes . (Organisms are interrelated and interacting) 4. When it reaches the Earth, some is reflected back to space by clouds, some is absorbed by the atmosphere, and some is absorbed at the Earth's surface. However, among neighboring planets, the Earth’s atmosphere is unique because it is related closely to ocean and surface processes that, together with the atmosphere, form the basis for life. Earth’s water can be solid (frozen), liquid, or a gas (vapor). Label the parts of the following diagram: Approximately ¾ Earth is covered by with water. One of the important feature of this sphere is that in this part of atmosphere, temperature decreases with increase in height. Essential to life on the planet, it only makes up about 0.07 percent of the Earth's mass. The limited part of the planet that can support living things comprises the second system; these regions are referred to as the biosphere. The earth-atmosphere energy balance is the balance between incoming energy from the Sun and outgoing energy from the Earth. Welcome. It consists mainly of Nitrogen, Oxygen, as well as a few other gaseous elements. Geography, Earth, Atmosphere, Structure of Atmosphere. Air pressure in this region is also between 100 millibar over Equator and 250 millibar over poles. Carbon Dioxide The main gas responsible for creating a greenhouse effect and warming our planet. 15 terms. Unlike the air in the troposphere, the air in the stratosphere gets warmer higher up in this layer. Carbon flows between the atmosphere, land, and ocean in a cycle that encompasses nearly all life and sets the thermostat for Earth's climate. ATMOSPHERE: Air (made up of many gases) HYDROSPHERE: Sea, lagoon, ice-sheets and ice-caps, rainwater, etc BIOSPHERE: Fish, trees, and other life forms … EXAMPLE of a system- ECOSYSTEM. At the height of 50 kms it is 1 mb and at height of 80 kms it drops to 0.01 mb. Thermosphere - The thermosphere is next and the air is very thin here. Credit of discovering this layer goes to scientists Kennelly and Heaviside who, with the help of radio waves proved that the atoms and molecules of the gases present in this layer get electrically changed by the addition and removal of electrons due to the effect of ultraviolet, Xray and Gama rays. He was easily able to di… Use a model to describe how variations in the flow of energy into and out of Earth's systems result in changes in climate. By the early 1800s, however, scientists such as John Dalton recognized that the atmosphere was in fact composed of several chemically distinct gases, which he was able to separate and determine the relative amounts of within the lower atmosphere. Earth’s atmosphere has six layers: the troposphere, the stratosphere, the mesosphere, the … The geosphere consists of the core, mantle and crust of the Earth. This is the hard and rigid outer layer of the Earth. 21. Start studying Earth System Test Diagrams. rcmeche. Keep in mind that there is no one right way to make a diagram. HS. Droughts and Earth Systems. Biosphere. the Earth’s climate. Generally, atmosphere extends up to about 1600 km from the earth’s surface. The next layer is the stratosphere. The Earth's atmosphere is a thin layer of gases that surrounds the Earth. Now it is clear that atmosphere starts from Earth surface but scientists have different views about its maximum height. The earth-atmosphere energy balance is the balance between incoming energy from the Sun and outgoing energy from the Earth. About the Atmosphere This sphere is the outer part of the Earth System that extends nearly 500 km above Earth's surface and includes an ever-changing mixture of gas and small particles surrounding the Earth’s … Image Guidelines 4. Troposphere-- "region of mixing" -- nearest the surface, 5 to 10 miles high depending upon location/weather (higher near equator and in summer, lower near poles and in winter). It surrounds our planet, keeps us warm, gives us oxygen to breathe, and it is where our weather happens. The atmosphere is the space above the Earth’s surface. Atmosphere 2. Of the surface water, most is the salt water in the oceans. When relevant aspects of the climate approach a threshold, these components can be tipped into a qualitatively different state by small external perturbations. sphere’ it has been derived from Greek word ‘Tropos’ which means mixing or Turbulence, overall we can say ‘region of mixing’. This sphere starts from 12 to16 kilometers above the Earth surface and extend upto 50 kilometers known for isothermal characteristics also. Earth System Reservoirs • The Atmosphere • The mixture of gases that surrounds Earth • Predominantly N 2, O 2, Ar, CO 2, and H 2 O • In the context of the planet it is a very very thin layer, but it protects life from damaging solar radiation, is the reservoir for oxygen and carbon dioxide • It is the outer boundary of the Earth system . At the height of 50 KM it becomes 0° Celsius (32°F). The Earth's atmosphere is divided up into 5 major layers: Exosphere - The last layer and the thinnest. Water vapor, dust particles, pollutants, and pollen also can be found in mixed into the atmosphere at this level. The bottom layer, which is the layer closest to the Earth, is the most dense of the five layers. Log in Sign up. Disclaimer 8. Nitrogen and oxygen are by far the most common; dry air is composed of about 78% nitrogen (N 2) and about 21% oxygen (O 2). Now it is clear that atmosphere starts from Earth surface but scientists have different views about its maximum height. Air pressure is very low in this layer. Most of our atmosphere is located close to the earth's surface where it is most dense. none of the weather activities take place in this region. Because it is a fluid system, the atmosphere is capable of supporting a wide spec-trum of motions. In addition, trace gases (carbon dioxide, nitrous oxides, methane, and ozone) account for another tenth of a percent. • The place where Earth’s four reservoirs interact most intensively is a narrow zone called the life zone • Conditions favorable for life are created by interactions between the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere, and modified by the biosphere The atmosphere is the thin gaseous layer that envelopes the lithosphere. Log in Sign up. Chemical notation (CO 2, O 3) indicates the gas responsible for blocking sunlight at a particular wavelength. The lithosphere contains the elements of the Earth crust and part of the upper mantle. It includes some discussion of the validation and use of general circulation models as atmospheric analogs. Ask an Astronomer. The energy entering, reflected, absorbed, and emitted by the Earth system are the components of the Earth's radiation budget. Prohibited Content 3. The Earth formed approximately 4.6 billion years ago. This gas is present in abundance between 15 to 35 kilometers above the Earth surface, which originates when oxygen molecule disintegrates into two atoms of oxygen and then integrating back into a molecule. Because the troposphere is the lowest atmosphere layer, it contains 75 percent of the atmosphere’s mass. Auroras occur in the ionosphere where high-energy particles from the sun interacting with the atoms in this layer. above surface of Earth, is mesosphere, upto 80 kms. Many earth orbiting satellites and the International Space Station are found in this layer. https://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/dynamic/inside.html, Williams, R. S. (n.d.). When the sun shines, heat is radiated to the earth’s surface and reflected back into the atmosphere. ... Earth's Systems Lesson 1. The Earth’s atmosphere has five main layers and a sixth layer, the ionosphere, that overlaps the mesosphere, thermosphere, and exosphere. Diagramming is a useful tool for developing an understanding of Earth as a system. The atmosphere also includes water vapor. Abiotic describes substances that are made from non-living materials. The troposphere starts at ground level and extends to 10 kilometers in altitude. Atmosphere. The Earth's atmosphere is divided up into 5 major layers: Exosphere - The last layer and the thinnest. Spell. Energy released from the Sun is emitted as shortwave light and ultraviolet energy. Earth's atmosphere is about 300 miles thick but the densest part is within 18 miles of the earth's surface. Earth’s major systems are the geosphere (solid and molten rock, soil, and sediments), the hydrosphere (water and ice), the atmosphere (air), and the biosphere (living things, including humans). EXOSPHERE The farthest layer 640 to 64,000 km (400 to 40,000 mi) above Earth's surface The air dwindles to nothing as molecules drift into space. Earth's Systems: HS-ESS2-4. This article throws light upon the four main spheres of earth. Unlike the troposphere, the stratosphere has no turbulence. Report a Violation 10. Transfer of the Sun’s Energy through Earth’s Systems. Earth’s air makes up the atmosphere. the solid part of the Earth. In this layer temperature again starts decreasing with the increase in height and at the upper boundary of this layer it touches down to -80°C point. By burning fossil fuels, people are changing the carbon cycle with far-reaching consequences. On the basis of information provided by radars, balloons, rockets, satellites at present large number of scientists agree on a point that the height of atmosphere is 29000 kilometer and layer upto 800 kilometer is considered as important part of atmosphere. The Around 75% mass of gases and nearly all water vapours and aerosols are present in this layer. This part of the Earth includes soil. Copyright 9. 22. Every living and non-living thing on Earth falls under one of these two main spheres which are the Earth’s geosphere and biosphere. The composition of Earth's atmosphere is largely governed by the by-products of the life that it sustains. This energy, the Earth's movement relative to the sun, and the components of the atmosphere and of the Earth's surface maintain the long-term climate, the short-term weather, and the temperature conditions. We often call the atmosphere “air.” All planets have an atmosphere, but Earth is the only planet with the correct combination of gases to support life. The atmosphere is made up … What matters … Earth’s major systems are the geosphere (solid and molten rock, soil, and sediments), the hydrosphere (water and ice), the atmosphere (air), and the biosphere (living things, including humans). The term is taken from the Greek word lithos meaning “rocky”. The higher the atmosphere, the thinner it becomes and this trait gradually moves towards space. The mesosphere is the layer where meteors entering the Earth’s atmosphere break up. Three of these spheres are abiotic and one sphere is biotic. Because of scanty air pressure, temperature here is quite different as compared to the temperature felt at the surface of Earth. This layer is known as the troposphere. The Earth’s atmosphere is the gaseous layer that envelopes the world. Diagram of atmospheric windows—wavelengths at which electromagnetic radiation will penetrate the Earth's atmosphere. The last layer of Earth's atmosphere that has no definite boundary and where the Northern Lights occur. Atmospheric pressure at a particular location is the force per unit area perpendicular to a surface determined by the weight of the vertical column of atmosphere above that location. The Earth system is essentially a CLOSED SYSTEM. Now it is clear that atmosphere starts from Earth surface but scientists have different views about its maximum height. Temperatures can get extremely hot in the thermosphere. (n.d.). Specifically, they are the "geosphere" (land), "hydrosphere" (water), "biosphere" (living things), and "atmosphere" (air). Geographers break down the Earth’s systems into four spheres that make up the world’s air (atmosphere), water (hydrosphere), land (geosphere), and living organisms (biosphere). These four types of interactions can be illustrated in the Earth System Diagram below: In addition to the above four event sphere interactions, there are six interactions that occur among the earth's spheres: lithosphere hydrosphere lithosphere biosphere lithosphere atmosphere … This unit is a minimum of 2 hours. The spheres are: 1. Flashcards. It composed of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 0.9% argon, 0.03% carbon dioxide, and trace amounts of other gases. Components. Learning Lesson: Canned … Only Helium and hydrogen are found in this layer. Search. The height of this sphere extends from 80 to 640 kms above surface of Earth. https://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/ask/64-What-is-the-atmosphere-of-Earth-made-of-, Layers of earth’s atmosphere | UCAR center for science education. Gravity. U.S. Geological Survey Publications Warehouse. shalon_carnahan1. Some scientists organized of the parts of the Earth can be divided into two main systems. 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